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英语学习中目标语“涵化”程度的提升策略研究

2020-09-10 16:50作者: admin51今日论文网
摘  要:涵化(acculturation)是指学习者与目的语社团的社会和心理结合。Schumann 1978年提出的“涵化模式”认为:学习者的二语习得水平隶属于“涵化”的一方面,对目标语文化的适应程度决定了二语习得水平。二语习得者对目的语文化的融合程度决定二语习得的成败。如果学习者和目的语的亲近感较弱,其语言习得水平就处于较低层次;反之,如果学习者与目标语语言、文化和人群保持较密切的“融合”状态,就会获得较高的第二语言习得水平。本论文通过探讨如何在专业英语学习中提高对目标语的“涵化”程度,寻求提升语言综合能力和专业素质的策略。
关键词:涵化; “涵化”模式;  社会距离;  心理距离;  英语学习
Introduction
Nowadays, with the popularity of population mobility, acculturation has attracted the attention of many scholars. In the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA), it is accepted that different acculturation levels determines target language proficiency. One’s language acquisition level would belong to a lower level if the learner is not intimate to target language. On the contrary, one’s foreign or second language level would be higher if the leaner keeps a harmonious relationship with target language, target culture and its people.
    The number of English language learners has risen sharply all over the world nowadays and this is also undoubtedly the current case in China. While according to previous researches, strategies on how to improve acculturation status in practice is still an area to be probed into.
    As to the relationship between acculturation and second language acquisition, it has been fully developed into a mature subject. The author in this thesis here would have a clear explanation about this theory based on previous research findings. The author would like to explore more strategies to improve acculturation level into target language from the view of English learners, by analyzing two major factors----social distance and psychological distance. The author wants to give more proper and effective methods to improve English learners’ standard, and providing more learning skills to benefit more English learners. 
    Theoretical significance of the thesis lies in that John Schuman’s acculturation model first analyzes why the speed and effectiveness of second language acquisition are different, which involves two major factors---social distance and psychological distance. We can improve our English abilities by studying his theory to improve the acculturation standard. Practical significance is that many English learners in China hold instrumental motivation--they study English only to pass an exam, get a job promotion, or some temporary knowledge, etc. These types of language learners are satisfied with grammar and hidebound assembly of words, lacking the interest of native expression, so they acculturate very little and eventually absorb little English knowledge. This thesis concerns how to make English learners acculturate into English culture and improve the sense of closeness to the target language, to improve the initiative and effectiveness of English learning, which is important in greater global community and life.


Chapter 1  Epistemological Foundations

1.1 Acculturation
    The meeting of cultures and the resulting changes are what collectively has come to be known as acculturation (Berry, 2006). In the field of anthropology, acculturation
has been a popular topic for researches in sociology, psychology and other fields. Acculturation is classically defined by Red field et al. as “those phenomena which result individuals having different cultures come into continuous first hand contact which subsequent changes in the original culture patterns of either or both groups.” (Redfield et al., 1936:149)

1.2 Schumann’s Acculturation Model  
    The Acculturation Model, which is advanced by Applied Linguistics professor, John H. Schumann, explains some factors of second language acquisition from the view of social psychology. John H. Schumann defined acculturation as “the social and psychology integration of the learner with the target language social group“. (Schumann 1978a; 1978b; 1978c) The extent to which learners acculturate depends on two sets of factors which determine their levels of social distance and psychological distance (Schumann 1978a; 1978b; 1978c). It is also proposed that “Any learner can be placed on a continuum that ranges from social and psychological distance to social and psychological proximity with speakers of the TL, and that the learner will acquire the second language only to the degree that he acculturates. SLA is just one aspect of acculturation and the degree to which a learner acculturates to the TL group will control the degree to which he acquires the second language.” (Schumann 1978a; 1978b; 1978c) 
    The content of social distance is social component of the acculturation model, while psychological distance component involves all affective factors. This is what with the concept of acculturation means—“social and psychological integration of the learner with target language”. (Schumann 1978a; 1978b; 1978c)  Schumann emphasized culture of the social background in second language acquisition whether it is in social or in the psychological components. Some personal varieties--like motivation, age, plus some social varieties like group size, lifespan in target language country and so on--are related to acculturation and second language acquisition but they will not dominate the whole second language acquisition. Learning of culture background cannot replace language learning, but second language acquisition definitely requires cultural background of the society in question. Although Schumann seems to have exaggerated the importance of cultural background, we should look at all the relationships among different dialectic components when making our comparisons.   
    To some extent, second language acquisition is a psychological process: the mixing process of different cultural systems, the process of cultural collision, as well as understanding differences between values, thoughts, and ways of thinking. It is a complicated process that different cultural systems are blending and melding into each other, with language as the carrier or conduct of culture, as well as the important component of culture. As the carrier of culture, formal language records content of culture, while as component of culture, language, as a subsystem, is most always associated with culture as the larger system. Therefore, learning process of a foreign language is also the process of absorbing foreign culture. This will bring a range of psychological changes for the language learner, especially in the ways of logical reasoning, thinking and moral values. Learners will learn target language well if they can understand foreign culture and absorb its positive factors, otherwise they only can possess some psychological disorder and make language learning more difficult if not impossible, with their failure to evolve into the new culture and all of its nuances that are associated with that culture's language.

1.2.1 Social Distance
    “Social distance concerns the extent to which individual learners become members of the target language group and, therefore, achieve contact with them.”(Schumann, J, 1976a, b, 1978a, b) Social factors can limit or benefit communication between two groups, and this factor can further influence the extent of cultural acculturation, as well as influencing the extent of second language acquisition. This phenomenon involves eight 8 variables: (1) Social dominance (2) Integration pattern (3) Enclosure (4) Cohesiveness (5) Size (6) Cultural congruence (7) Attitude and (8) Intended length of residence.

1.2.2 Psychological Distance
“Psychological distance concerns the extent to which individual learners are comfortable with the learning task and therefore, is a personal rather than a group dimension.” (Schumann, J, 1976a, b, 1978a, b) It belongs to a personal variable not a group variable. At least four 4 variables are involved: (1) Language shock, (2) Cultural shock, (3) Motivation, and (4) Ego-Permeability.
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